LGBT Rights in Indonesia

Left Far Behind: The Situation of LGBT Rights in Indonesia

By Yasmin Purba, Lawyer and Activist, Expert Member of Arus Pelangi (Rainbow Flow).

Although there is no law criminalizing homosexuality or same-sex conduct at the national level, except in Aceh province, there are, at least 15 discriminatory policies against LGBTI people in Indonesia. The most severe form of punishment is found in Aceh, a province which has introduced its own Islamic laws, where same-sex sexual relationships are punishable by a sentence of caning (maximum of 100 strokes). In May 2017, two men were caned 83 times each.

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The rise of Islamic fundamentalism has played a large role in shaping public opinion and increasing abuse against the LGBTI community, particularly in the last two years. Between January to August, 2016 alone, there were 162 abuses of hate speech, forced evictions, dismissal of public events, and assaults against the LGBTI community across various regions. This number is unprecedented and many of the attacks were incited by extremist Muslim groups. Furthermore, a group of conservative academics and parents’ associations called the AILA (literally ‘The Family Love Alliance’) have been actively campaigning against LGBTI rights. They have filed a petition at the Constitutional Court pleading the Court to include the criminalisation of homosexuality in the penal code. Simultaneously, representatives from Islamic parties in Parliament are pushing for the inclusion of ‘casual’ sex, including same-sex acts, under punishable acts in the revision of the Penal Code.

Law enforcement have failed to provide adequate protection for LGBTI people, which makes impunity a common practice when it comes to anti-LGBTI violence. Police have taken active roles in cracking down on the LGBTI community: the most recent proof of police-led discriminatory treatment is the police raid on a gym and spa venue in Jakarta, where 141 men were stripped naked and arrested under pornography laws.

Discrimination and violence further marginalise LGBTI people into a vulnerable position and poverty. Surveys by Arus Pelangi (‘Rainbow Flow’), the Indonesian Federation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Transsexual, and Intersexual Communities, reveal that 89.3% of Indonesian LGBTI people have experienced violence, while more than 50% live below the national poverty line. Despite being a State Party to almost all key international human rights treaties, the rights of LGBTI people in Indonesia are still far from protected.

Yasmin Purba is attending the Queer Asia 2017 Conference, June 16-18 at SOAS, University of London and will be speaking on LGBTI human rights in Indonesia.

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Article in Bahasa Indonesia

Tertinggal Jauh: Situasi HAM Komunitas LGBTI Indonesia

 Oleh Yasmin Purba, Penggiat Hukum dan Aktivis HAM, Anggota Ahli Arus Pelangi.

Meskipun homoseksualitas atau hubungan seks sesama jenis kelamin bukanlah kejahatan di tingkat nasional, kecuali di Propinsi Aceh, namun masih ada 15produk  kebijakan anti LGBTI di Indonesia. Praktik terburuk, tentunya dapat ditemukan di Aceh, di mana, berdasarkan Qanun Jinayat, hubungan seks sesama jenis dapat dihukum dengan maksimal 100 kali cambukan. Pada bulan Mei 2017 lalu, dua orang lelaki dicambuk masing-masing 83 kali atas tuduhan melakukan liwath.

Politik fundamentalisme Islam memainkan peran yang besar terhadap pembentukan opini publik dan meningkatkan kekerasan terhadap komunitas LGBTI, terlebih pada dua tahun terakhir. Sepanjang bulan Januari-Agustus 2016 saja, ada sekitar 162 serangan dalam bentuk ujaran kebencian, pengusiran paksa, pembubaran acara publik dan penganiayaan terhadap komunitas LGBTI di berbagai wilayah di Indonesia. Angka kekerasan tersebut adalah yang tertinggi yang pernah terjadi dan sebagian besar aksi kekerasan tersebut dimotori oleh kelompok Islam ekstrimis. Selain itu, sekelompok akademisi dan persatuan orangtua konservatif yang menamakan diri mereka Aliansi Cinta Keluarga (AILA), sangat aktif melakukan kampanye anti LGBTI, bahkan mereka mengajukan permohonan ke Mahkamah Konstitusi untuk memperluas makna perzinahan  di dalam KUHP, sehingga dapat mencakup hubungan seks di luar perkawinan, termasuk hubungan seks sesama jenis. Sementara itu, di saat yang bersamaan, anggota-anggota fraksi dari partai-partai Islam di DPR-RI juga sedang mendorong perluasan makna perzinahan, seperti yang dimohonkan oleh AILA tersebut, di dalam Bab tentang kesusilaan Rancangan KUHP.

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Sementara itu, aparat penegak hukum telah gagal memberikan perlindungan yang efektif bagi komunitas LGBTI, sehingga impunitas adalah praktik yang umum ketika terjadi kekerasan anti LGBTI. Alih-alih melindungi, pihak kepolisian justru secara aktif turut melakukan kekerasan terhadap kelompok LGBTI: penggerebekan dan penangkapan sewenang-wenang terhadap 141 orang di pusat kebugaran Atlantis, yang dilakukan oleh jajaran  Polres Jakarta Utara merupakan salah satu contoh sikap diskriminatif pihak kepolisian terhadap komunitas LGBTI.

Diskriminasi dan kekerasan anti LGBTI yang sistematis dan meluas di Indonesia semakin memarjinalisasi komunitas LGBTI ke dalam jurang kerentanan dan kemiskinan. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Arus Pelangi, sebuah organisasi advokasi hak-hak LGBTI di Indonesia, diketahui bahwa 89.3% individu LGBTI pernah mengalami kekerasan, sementara lebih dari 50% hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan nasional. Meskipun Pemerintah Indonesia telah menjadi Negara Pihak di hampir semua instrumen internasional pokok tentang HAM, namun pemenuhan hak-hak kelompok LGBTI di Indonesia masih tertinggal jauh di belakang.

Yasmin Purba akan berpartisipasi di dalam Konferensi Queer Asia 2017, 16-18 Juni di SOAS, Universitas London dan akan berbicara tentang hak-hak asasi manusia bagi komunitas LGBTI di Indonesia.

 

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